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Wikipedia: Machiavelli (

Niccolo Machiavelli (1469 – 1527) began his career as politician in the independent city Florence. After he was unsuccesful in politics, he became a writer. Machiavelli wrote several books about political science, political philosophy and war.

Because his works were about some very devious political ideas, to be described as Machiavellian is to be cunning and unscrupulous.

Machiavelli’s books were published after his death. It is believed his books are still a guide for current politicians and politics.


  • Principe (The Prince) (1513)
  • Dell’arte della guerra (The Art of War) (1520)
  • The Discorsi sopra la prima Deca di Tito Livio (Discourses on Livy) (1531)

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