Shared sets of explicitly defined terminology which provide a deeper level of meaning by providing equivalence relations between terms. Ontologies describe concepts rather than words.
Dictionary.com (http://www.dictionary.com): The branch of metaphysics that deals with the nature of being.
An ontology is “the specification of one’s conceptualization of a knowledge domain.” and is therefore a form of knowledge representation. It is the specs that formally defines relations among terms, eg., taxonomy and set of inference rules. Together they form a richer description of relationships between terms. A formal ontology is a controlled vocabulary expressed in an ontology representation language.
Ontology Inference Layer
This is a proposal for a web-based representation and inference layer for ontologies, which combines the widely used modelling primitives from frame-based languages with the formal semantics and reasoning services provided by description logics.
- Ontology Inference Layer (http://www.ontoknowledge.org/oil/index.shtml)
- What is an Ontology? (http://www-ksl.stanford.edu/kst/what-is-an-ontology.html)
- Formal Ontology, Conceptual Analysis and Knowledge Representation (http://citeseer.nj.nec.com/guarino95formal.html) by Nicola Guarino at Citeseer
TakeDown.NET -> “Ontologies”